The exhaust system carries out three essential functions:
- Channelling gases to the rear of the vehicle.
- Decreasing the pressure, speed and temperature of the gases.
- Creating appropriate back pressure at the motor output.
The current regulations concerning vehicle noise emissions limit sound emission to 74 decibels.
Engines produce a sound made up of high and low-frequency waves. Because of their characteristics, these wave types cannot be eliminated in the same way, which means that silencers capable of eliminating both, by their design, must be used in the same vehicle.
The elimination of low-frequency waves is carried out by silencers with the particular structure of a resonating chamber, which includes a series of pierced tubes that the gas passes through. When passing through these tubes, the soundwave bounces off the metal partitions and loses intensity until reaching acceptable levels. This energy is released in the form of heat. This is called a reflection type silencer.
To eliminate high-frequency waves another type of silencer must be used, as their intensity does not reduce in reflection silencers. To reduce the intensity of high-frequency waves, the gas is passed through sound-absorbing materials. When passing through these spongy materials, the resulting friction decreases the intensity of the soundwave and transforms it into heat, as in the previous case. This is called an absorption type silencer.
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